HOW IT WORKS
Learn how impedance assays work and the innovation behind Axion's products.
Getting started with Maestro Z couldn't be easier. Culture your cells in an Axion multiwell CytoView-Z plate [A]. Load this plate into the Maestro Z system and allow the environmental chamber to automatically equilibrate [B]. Analyze changes in GPCR signaling in the CytoView-Z plate label-free and in real-time with AxIS Z software [C].
WHAT IS IMPEDANCE?
Axion's 96-well CytoView-Z plate has a recording electrode embedded in the culture surface of each well [D]. The Maestro Z platform uses impedance measurements (ohms, Ω) to quantify the presence of cells on the electrode [E]. To measure impedance, small electrical signals are delivered to the electrodes. Cell attachment, spreading, and cell-cell connections block these electrical signals and are detected as an increase in impedance. Impedance is also sensitive to subtle changes in cell conformation, such as those caused by receptor-mediated signaling or cell morphology. Since impedance is non-invasive and label-free, impedance assays can be used to quantify dynamic cellular responses over minutes, hours, and days [F].
CELLULAR IMPEDANCE RECORDINGS
Impedance measures how much electrical signal (teal-colored arrows) is blocked by the electrode-cell interface [G]. When the electrode is uncovered, electrical signal easily passes (thick arrows) and the impedance is low. When cells cover the electrode, less electrical signal passes (blocked arrows) and impedance is high. Receptor-mediated changes in cell conformation can be observed as changes in the measured impedance [H].
Discover how impedance-based assays are being used to track cell signaling.
Monitor rapid receptor-mediated signaling in real-timeCell signaling pathways communicate messages from outside the cell. When extracellular signal molecules bind receptors on the cell surface, they initiate signaling events inside the cell that determine cell behavior. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of transmembrane receptors. GPCR binding results in conformational changes and downstream responses that can be measured by impedance. These small changes often occur rapidly, but can last minutes to hours with significant physiological consequences. The Maestro Z impedance assay allows you to sensitively and continuously measure even the dynamics of cell signaling over minutes to hours without disturbing the cell biology.
Calu-3 cells were seeded into the CytoView-Z plate and impedance was continuously monitored on the Maestro Z system. When dosed Isoproterenol (teal), a potent beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, the impedance assay revealed a short-term dose-dependent decrease in impedance (left). At 20 minutes post-dose, the cells dosed with the highest concentration showed the lowest impedance, while cells dosed with the lowest concentration had already returned to baseline (middle). Cell signaling dynamics varied with compound mechanism (right). Histamine (orange, 100 µM) showed a short rapid decrease in impedance, while Cytochalasin D (gray) caused an initial increase and subsequent decrease in impedance related to actin inhibition and cell cycle arrest.
Discover how impedance-based assays are being used to better characterize other cellular processes.