HOW IT WORKS
Learn how Maestro assays work and the innovation behind Axion's products.
Getting started with Maestro couldn't be easier. Culture your cardiomyocytes in an Axion multiwell MEA plate [A]. Load this MEA plate into the Maestro MEA system and allow the environmental chamber to automatically equilibrate [B]. Analyze the activity of the cardiomyocytes in the MEA plate label-free and in real-time with AxIS Navigator software [C].
WHAT IS MEA?
Axion’s microelectrode array (MEA) plates have a grid of tightly spaced electrodes embedded in the culture surface of each well [A]. Electrically active cells, such as cardiomyocytes, can be cultured over the electrodes [B]. Over time, as the cultures become established, cardiomyocytes can form a beating syncytium. Select the required cardiomyocyte recording mode on the Maestro system. The resulting electrical activity, spontaneous or evoked, is captured from each electrode on a microsecond timescale providing both temporally and spatially precise data [C].
Axion's patent-pending Local Extracellular Action Potential (LEAP) assay allows you to record extracellular action potential waveforms, which are stable for 10 to 20 minutes or more. The new LEAP assay signal allows quantification of action potential morphology and characterization of complex repolarization irregularities such as early afterdepolarizations (EADs).
In a cardiomyocyte-MEA assay, the cardiac field potential signal arises from the propagation of the cardiac action potential across the functional syncytium, much in the same way the clinical ECG arises from the propagation of the cardiac action potential across the heart. The field potential signal has clear markers for depolarization and repolarization enabling the quantification of important beating parameters.
In the human heart, a coordinated contraction is required for efficient circulation. Slowed or disrupted conduction can lead to irregular heart beats, known as arrhythmia, making conduction a key component of cardiac assessment in vitro. Providing up to 64 recording sites in each well, measure changes in propagation patterns and conduction velocity in response to pharmacological interrogation, and during cardiomyocyte differentiation.
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling describes the series of events from the production of an electrical impulse (action potential) to the contraction of muscles in the heart. Simultaneously measure cardiomyocyte electrical activity and the resulting contraction for a more complete understanding of your cardiac model's functionality.
FASTER FUNCTIONAL MATURITY
Mature iPSC-CMs in 48 hours.
THE MAESTRO ADVANTAGE
The use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) is limited by functional immaturity, including immature calcium handling and contractility function. Physical conditioning of iPSC-CMs via electrical or mechanical stimulation facilitates maturation as measured by a positive force-frequency relationship and detection of positive inotropes. Current in vitro protocols require 2-4 weeks of chronic pacing. Using array-based contractility and local electrical stimulation, the Maestro elicits functionally mature phenotypes in iPSC-CMs after only 48 hours of chronic pacing.
Experts in the field explain how they are using Axion's technology to better understand cardiac disorders.
Long QT syndrome, also referred to as LQTS, is a genetic disorder which affects the repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat. This prolonged repolarization of the heart is observed as a lengthening of the QT interval in the electrocardiogram, hence the disorders name. A long QT interval can upset the careful timing of the heartbeat and trigger dangerous heart rhythms which can result in fainting, seizures, or sudden death. In this webinar, Dr. Vincenzo Macri (STEMCELL Technologies) discusses how the stem cell culture and gene editing technologies being developed by his lab can be used to recreate these patient heart beats in a dish.
The inability to predict a drug’s cardiovascular liability prior to clinical trials or launch has resulted in numerous costly late stage drug development failures and market withdrawals. The aim of the Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) initiative is to update the existing cardiac safety testing paradigm to better evaluate arrhythmia risk. One proposed test of the CiPA panel is a microelectrode array (MEA) assay that tracks drug-induced changes to beating heart cells in a dish. In this webinar, Dr. Daniel Millard, discusses advances in arrhythmia detection to support next-generation CM-MEA assays.